Explain with examples how successful bacterial infection often depends on structural and enzyme virulence factors.
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Unit 9 Discussion
Regina Sims posted Oct 16, 2021 4:32 AM
When it comes to virulence, there are some pathogens that are more virulent than others. This has much to do with the unique virulence factors produced by individual pathogens, which determine the extent and severity of disease they may cause. (Oregon State University).
One way for a successful bacterial infection to occur by exploiting molecules naturally produced by the host. For example, most strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce the exoenzyme coagulase, which exploits the natural mechanism of blood clotting to evade the immune system. (Oregon State University). In skin infections, α-toxin is considered a key virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus. This pore-forming toxin consisting primarily of beta sheets is secreted by most of the S. aureus strains as a water-soluble monomer targeting the red blood cells. (Shettigar & Murali, 2020).
Oregon State University. (n.d.). 11.3 virulence factors of bacterial and viral pathogens. Allied Health Microbiology. Retrieved October 16, 2021, from https://open.oregonstate.education/microbiology/chapter/15-3virulence-factors-of-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens/.
Shettigar, K., & Murali, T. S. (2020, July 18). Virulence factors and clonal diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in colonization and wound infection with emphasis on diabetic foot infection. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. Retrieved October 16, 2021, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10096-020-03984-8
Morgan Hinds posted Oct 20, 2021 5:21 PM
Virulence is the severity of something. Virulence bacteria refers to structure of microorganisms that helps establish infection and disease. Some examples of virulence factors are attachment factors, antiphagocytic factors, spreading factors and enzymes, and toxins. Bacterial pathogens invade the host by adhesion. Adhesion is attached to cell receptors. “Susceptibility to bacterial infections depends on the physiologic and immunologic condition of the host and on the virulence of the bacteria. Before increased amounts of specific antibodies or T cells are formed in response to invading bacterial pathogens, the “nonspecific” mechanisms of host resistance (such as polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophage clearance) must defend the host against the microbes.”
Karki, G. (2018, December 19). Virulence factors of bacteria; microbial virulence factors. Online Biology Notes. Retrieved October 20, 2021, from https://www.onlinebiologynotes.com/virulence-factors-microorganisms-microbial-virulence-factors/.
Peterson, J. W. (1996, January 1). Bacterial pathogenesis. Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. Retrieved October 20, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8526/.
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