Please respond to BOTH of the following essay prompts (3-4 pages each).
1. The term “evolution” has been used to describe various biological processes. Define what “evolution” meant to Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, to Charles Darwin, and to Richard Owen (25 points). Darwin’s concept of evolution differed from previous interpretations and was met with widespread disapproval. Explain how Darwin’s concept of evolution was uniquely different as compared to previous interpretations of evolutionary processes (10 points) and what major criticisms were brought against Darwin’s theory (you should discuss many). Which of these criticisms was most damaging to Darwin’s theory (explain your choice and why it is the most damaging) (15 points).
2. The concept of evolution has caused contentious debate since well before the time of Charles Darwin. Discuss how the concept of evolution (Darwinian evolution or any other form of evolutionary theory) has been misinterpreted and used in negative ways from any time prior to Darwin up to Thomas Hunt Morgan (15 points). Explain how these misinterpretations of evolutionary philosophies are incorrect and provide evidence/ examples to support your answer (15 points). Lastly, make a case for whether the mutationists (de Vries and Morgan) deviated from Darwin’s idea of evolution or if mutationism simply represents a modified version of Darwinian Natural Selection (20 points).
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